ELEDIA@UniTN

ELEDIA Turns 20!
ELEDIA Turns 20! It was back in October-November 2000 that the ELEDIA brand began to circulate in an official form…
ELEDIA Artificial Intelligence Research Blog is online!
The ELEDIA Artificial Intelligence Research Blog (E-AIR Blog) has been launched! Check out our latest advancements on Artificial Intelligence as applied…
Dr. R. J. MAILLOUX awarded "Bruno Kessler" Honorary Professor
The ELEDIA Research Center is pleased to announce that Dr. Robert J. MAILLOUX will receive the title of Honorary Professor…
 
 
A large number of electronic devices exploits multiple wireless standards in modern mobile applications. The dimensions of such products (e.g., mobile handsets) are becoming smaller and smaller following the users’ needs and thanks to the progress of the modern integrated circuit technology. In this framework, it is usually necessary to integrate the RF-part (i.e., the different wireless interfaces) in only one antenna, thus yielding to multi-standard antennas. The design of these radiating systems is highly challenging since a high degree of miniaturization is also required.
In such a framework, fractal shapes have been proposed as a suitable solution for both miniaturization and multi-band issues, while spline-based shapes have been demonstrated very good Ultra-Wideband (UWB) properties.
   
Mobile handsets, smartphones, multi-purpose portable devices

Multiband S11 behaviour
Wideband S11 behaviour
   

 

 

 
Members of the ELEDIA Research Center have developed several cutting edge design approaches for the synthesis of miniaturized perturbed fractal multi-band and spline UWB antennas, based on the exploitation of Evolutionary Optimization, whose capability to deal with electromagnetic problems has been widely demonstrated. This kind of approach enables the formulation of the synthesis problem in terms of an optimization one, which is usually casted either in the time or in the frequency domain (depending on the specific application), where a set of unknown representative geometrical descriptors are tuned through an iterative process aimed at fitting suitable requirements/constraints on the electrical behavior in the desired band(s). The features of the arising designs have been also widely demonstrated through the fabrication and measurement of printed antenna prototypes, which is done in the ELEDIA Research Center facilities.
Fractal-based multi-band geometry
Spline-based UWB geometry

Keywords: Multi-band Antennas, UWB Antennas, Fractal, Spline, Mobile Handsets, Smartphones, Portable Devices, Evolutionary Design


See Also
  • M. D. Migliore, D. Pinchera, A. Massa, R. Azaro, F. Schettino, and L. Lizzi, “An investigation on UWB-MIMO communication systems based on an experimental channel characterization,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 3081-3083, September 2008.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.928814
  • L. Lizzi, F. Viani, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, “A PSO-driven spline-based shaping approach for ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna synthesis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 2613-2621, August 2008.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.927544
  • L. Lizzi, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, “Planar monopole UWB antenna with WLAN-band notched characteristics,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research B, vol. 25, pp. 277–292, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB10080511
  • L. Lizzi, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, “A time-domain approach to the synthesis of UWB antenna systems,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research, vol. 122, pp. 557-575, 2012.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11103003
  • L. Lizzi and A. Massa, “Dual-band printed fractal monopole antenna for LTE applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 10, pp. 760-763, 2011.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2011.2163051
  • L. Lizzi, R. Azaro, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, “Multiband fractal antenna for wireless communication systems for emergency management,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1-11, 2012.
    doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156939312798954865
  • L. Lizzi and G. Oliveri, “Hybrid design of a fractal-shaped GSM/UMTS antenna,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 24, no.5/6, pp. 707-719, March 2010.
    doi:10.1163/156939310791036386
  • L. Lizzi, R. Azaro, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "Printed UWB antenna operating over multiple mobile wireless standards," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 10, pp. 1429-1432, 2011.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2011.2179631
  • L. Lizzi, F. Viani, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, "Design of a miniaturized planar antenna for FCC-UWB communication systems," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1975-1978, Jul. 2008.  
    doi:10.1002/mop.23519
  • F. Viani, L. Lizzi, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, "A miniaturized UWB antenna for wireless dongle devices," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 7, pp. 714-717, 2008.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2008.2002904
  • F. Viani, L. Lizzi, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, "Spline-shaped ultra-wideband antenna operating in the ECC released frequency spectrum," Electronics Letters, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 7-8, Jan. 2008.
    doi:10.1049/el:20082840
  • L. Lizzi, F. Viani, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, "Optimization of a spline-shaped UWB antenna by PSO," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 6, pp. 182-185, 2007.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2007.894157
  • F. Viani, "Dual-band sierpinski pre-fractal antenna for 2.4GHz-WLAN and 800MHz-LTE wireless devices," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 35, pp. 63-71, 2013.
    doi:10.2528/PIERC12101204
  • F. Viani, M. Salucci, F. Robol, and A. Massa, "Multiband fractal Zigbee/WLAN antenna for ubiquitous wireless environments," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 26, no. 11-12, pp. 1554-1562. 2012.
    doi:10.1080/09205071.2012.704553  
  • R. Azaro, L. Debiasi, E. Zeni, M. Benedetti, P. Rocca, and A. Massa, "A hybrid prefractal three-band antenna for multi-standard mobile wireless applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 905-908, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2028627  
  • L. Lizzi, F. Viani, and A. Massa, "Dual-band spline-shaped PCB antenna for Wi-Fi applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 616-619, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2021993
    R. Azaro, F. Viani, L. Lizzi, E. Zeni, and A. Massa, "A monopolar quad-band antenna based on a Hilbert self-affine pre-fractal geometry," IEEE Antennas and Wireless
  • Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 177-180, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2008.2001428 
  • L. Lizzi, F. Viani, E. Zeni, and A. Massa, "A DVBH/GSM/UMTS planar antenna for multimode wireless devices," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 616-619, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2022962
  • R. Azaro, E. Zeni, P. Rocca, and A. Massa, "Innovative design of a planar fractal-shaped GPS/GSM/Wi-Fi antenna," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 825-829, Mar. 2008.
    doi:10.1002/mop.23208
   

 

 
 
Subsurface sensing through electromagnetic interrogating waves has been widely employed in the last few years in applications such as mine detection, archeological analysis, natural resources exploration, and NDE/NDT of structures and pavements. Nevertheless, real-time reliable processing techniques able to automatically detect relevant features in electromagnetic backscattered data are still not available, because of the inherent complexity of the problem at hand. Accordingly, the development of inverse scattering techniques specifically targeted at the detection of subsurface anomalies (e.g., landmines) is of great interest.
   
Landmine detection, Earth Science, environmental remediation, archeological analysis, geophysical investigation.

 

 

 

 

 
 
Members of the ELEDIA Research Center have developed several techniques for the detection and classification of buried object based on the learning-by-example paradigm. More specifically, the study, derivation, and testing of inverse scattering approaches based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) has been carried out in order to enable the real-time classification of multiple buried targets and determination of the probability of occurrence of relevant objects in the investigation domain.
 

 

Keywords: Subsurface Imaging, Support Vector Machines, Learning-by-Example Techniques, Inverse Scattering Problem, Pattern Classification.


See Also
  • A. Massa, Boni, A.; M. Donelli, "A Classification Approach Based on SVM for Electromagnetic Subsurface Sensing," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 2084-2093, Sept. 2005 doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.853186
  • L. Lizzi, F. Viani, P. Rocca, G. Oliveri, M. Benedetti, A. Massa, "Three-dimensional real-time localization of subsurface objects - From theory to experimental validation," 2009 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, vol. 2, pp.II-121-II-124, 12-17 July 2009 doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2009.5418018
  • M. Donelli, M. Benedetti, Lesselier, D.; A. Massa, "A qualitative two-step inversion approach for the reconstruction of subsurface defects," 2009 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, vol. 4, pp.IV-224-IV-227, 12-17 July 2009 doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2009.5417331
  • M. Donelli, M. Benedetti, P. Rocca, Melgani, F.; A. Massa, "Three dimensional electromagnetic sub-surface sensing by means of a multi-step SVM-based classification technique," 2007 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp.1801-1804, 9-15 June 2007 doi:10.1109/APS.2007.4395866
   

 

 
 
A key issue for cellular operators is the planning or re-configuration of radio base stations (BTSs) for fitting user requirements and guaranteeing a suitable quality of service (QoS). Time-varying scenarios as well as different and variable user needs require flexible and fast planners easy to use. Towards this end, the combination of reliable models able to predict the actual coverage of 3G and 4G networks with computationally-efficient optimizers is of great intrest in order to automatically configure large networks and achieve optimal performances in terms of throughput, served users, and bandwidth re-use.
   
Large Cellular Networks, WiFi Networks, 3G/4G Mixed Networks

 


 
 
Starting from models proposed in the literature, members of the ELEDIA Research Center have developed innovative stochastic radio planners able to deduce the optimal configuration of large 3G and 4G networks. Unlike standard planning tools, such approaches consider a set of requirements expressed in terms of communication traffic over the region of interest and they determine the corresponding optimal setup able to guarantee the required throughput. More specifically, the research activities carried out in this area have been focused on the development of ad-hoc Evolutionary algorithms and their integration with state-of-the-art coverage models in order to automatically plan the network configuration for large sites (several hundreds BTSs).

 

Coverge Probability Before Optimization

 

Coverge Probability After Optimization

Keywords: Cellular networks, Evolutionary Algorithms, 3G and 4G Networks, Radio Planning, Next Generation Wireless Communications

 

Additional Material

VELA Project

See Also

  • L. Manica, G. Oliveri, G. Ruscitti, L. Gandini, and A. Massa, "An innovative and reliable tool for the electromagnetic prediction in UMTS scenarios," PIERS 2011 in Marrakesh, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 20-23, 2011.
   

 

 
 
The extraordinary interest in electromagnetic Metamaterials is due to their unique capabilities to modify the propagation of the electromagnetic fields, which allows the design of innovative applications which were never before thought possible. Indeed, such "unique" features are at present being studied for the development of promising technologies with applications to several fields including public health, biomedicine, communications, security, aerospace, remote sensing, distributed monitoring, and public safety. Such applications, which cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum (from RF to optical wavelengths), include "perfect" imaging lenses with a negative index of refraction, cloaks of invisibility, miniaturized resonator antennas, thin frequency selective surfaces, as well as compact devices such as wave collimators, bends and rotators. However, it is well known that bandwidth and loss limitations represent an inherent drawback of many Metamaterial devices based on resonant structures. Accordingly, the availability of design techniques able to yield to Metamaterial-based broadband devices is of great interest from the scientific and industrial viewpoint.
   
Public health, Biomedicine, Communications, Security, Aerospace, Remote Sensing, Distributed Monitoring, and Public Safety.


 


 
 

Members of the ELEDIA Research Center are working on the development of several innovative devices based on metamaterials, including

  1. Multiband and wideband microstrip antennas exploiting Metamaterial substrates.
  2. Microwave and optical cloaking applications.
  3. Miniaturized field concentrators.
  4. Compact polarization rotators.
  5. Miniaturized beam splitters and collimators.
  6. Flat focusing lenses.

The research activities carried out in this area are specifically focused on the study, development, prototyping, and testing of innovative engineering applications based on the unique properties of electromagnetic Metamaterials with the purpose of bridging the gap between the already available theoretical results and the realization of reliable technologies.


Keywords: Metamaterials, Advanced Materials, Cloaking, Miniaturized Antennas, Wireless Communications, Biomedicine, Negative refraction.


See Also
  • E. Lier, D. H. Werner, C. P. Scarborough, Q. Wu and J. A. Bossard, "An octave-bandwidth negligible-loss radiofrequency metamaterial," Nature Materials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 216-222, March 2011.
  • D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, "Transformation electromagnetics: An overview of the theory and its application", IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 52, pp. 24-46, 2010.
  • D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, "Transformation optical designs for wave collimators, flat lenses, and right-angle bends," New J. Phys., vol. 10, pp. 115023/1-13, 2008.
  • G. Oliveri, E. T. Bekele, D. H. Werner, J. P. Turpin, and A. Massa, “Generalized QCTO for metamaterial-lens-coated conformal arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, in press.
  • G. Oliveri, P. Rocca, M. Salucci, E. T. Bekele, A. Massa and D. H. Werner, "Design and synthesis of innovative metamaterial-enhanced arrays," IEEE International Symposium on Antennas Propag. (APSURSI 2013), Orlando, Florida, USA, Jul. 7-12, 2013.
    doi:10.1109/APS.2013.6711145
  • G. Oliveri, "Improving the reliability of frequency domain simulators in the presence of homogeneous metamaterials - A preliminary numerical assessment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 122, pp. 497-518, 2012.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11100808.

 

 
 
Many applications including radio base stations, television broadcasting and satellite communications require the design of antennas exhibiting radiating performances that cannot be obtained by a single antenna. In order to satisfy these design constraints, it is thus necessary to employ antenna arrays (i.e. antennas composed by a large number of radiating elements). However, since severe limitations are usually enfoced on the cost, the weight and the hardware and software complexity of the radiating system, the designed arrays must often comprise a minimum number of elements. This objective can be accomplished by using, instead of a regular arrangement, a properly designed non-uniform antenna layout.
   
Satellite systems for wireless communications, astronomic observations, navigation, and earth and weather observation, antennas for base stations and television broadcasting.

 


Satellite Regional Coverage

 



Weather Observation
 

The activities of the members of the ELEDIA Research Center are focused on the development of innovative strategies for the design of sparse antenna arrays. In order to achieve this objective, a method based on the exploitation of Bayesian Compressive Sensing (BCS) has been developed and applied to:

  1. The synthesis of arrays characterized by different layouts (e.g linear and planar arrays).
  2. The design of antenna arrays with pencil beam and shaped patterns.
  3. The synthesis of arrays imposing geometrical constraints on the elements displacement (e.g. "holes" in the array layout).

The developed methodology allows the numerical-efficient synthesis of large antenna arrays with a high saving in terms of array elements compared with analogous state-the-art techniques for the synthesis of uniformly-spaced antenna arrays.

 

Synthesized Beam Pattern

 

Sparse Array Geometry

Keywords: Array Synthesis, Sparse arrays, Bayesian Compressive Sampling


See Also
  • G. Oliveri and A. Massa, "Bayesian compressive sampling for pattern synthesis with maximally sparse non-uniform linear arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 467-481, Feb. 2011. doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2096400
  • G. Oliveri, M. Carlin, and A. Massa, "Complex-Weight Sparse Linear Array Synthesis by Bayesian Compressive Sampling," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 2309-2326, May 2012.
  • G. Oliveri, E. T. Bekele, F. Robol, and A. Massa, "Sparsening conformal arrays through a versatile BCS-based method," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1681-1689, Apr. 2014.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2287894
  • F. Viani, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "Compressive sensing pattern matching techniques for synthesizing planar sparse arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 4577-4587, Sept. 2013.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2267195.
   

 

 
 
Large antenna arrays are of great importance in applications such as satellite communications and remote sensing where a high gain, low sidelobe levels, and controlled beam shapes are required. Unfortunately, such applicative frameworks impose severe constraints on the weight of the antenna system, owing to the very large cost per kilogram launched in orbit. Accordingly, solutions to reduce the weight of large antenna arrays while mantaining good radiation performance are of great importance in space engineering.
   
Satellite systems for wireless communications, astronomic observations, navigation, and earth and weather observation


 



 

Members of the ELEDIA Research Center have developed several analytical design approaches for the synthesis of large thinned arrays, which are based on the exploitation of Almost Difference Sets (ADS). The enabling features of these binary sequences include

  1. their analytical nature and their availability for arrangements comprising several thousands elements both in linear and planar displacement, which guarantee an high design efficiency whatever the aperture size;
  2. their predictable autocorrelation function, which allows the derivation of suitable bounds for the peak sidelobe level of the synthesized arrangements;
  3. their massively thinned nature, which can be exploited to significantly reduce the number of radiating elements with respect to fully populated layouts.

The research activities carried out in this area have been focused on the mathematical derivation, study, and development of ADS-based design techniques for linear and planar thinned arrays. Moreover, their extension has been also considered by means of hybrid analytical-stochastic methodologies.

Synthesized beam pattern
Thinned array geometry

Keywords: Thinned arrays, Almost Difference Sets, Space, Satellite Communications, Analytic Design


See Also
  • G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, "Genetically-designed arbitrary length almost difference sets," Electron. Lett., vol. 45, no. 23, pp. 1182-1183, Nov. 2009.
    doi:10.1049/el.2009.1927
  • G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, "Linear Array Thinning Exploiting Almost Difference Sets," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3800-3812, Dec. 2009.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2027243
  • G. Oliveri, L. Manica, and A. Massa, "ADS-Based Guidelines for Thinned Planar Arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1935-1948, Jun. 2010.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2046858
  • G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "ADS-based array design for 2-D and 3-D ultrasound imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics Freq. Control, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1568-1582, Jul. 2010.
    doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2010.1587
  • G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "Fully interleaved linear arrays with predictable sidelobes based on almost difference sets," IET Radar Sonar Navigat., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 649-661, Oct. 2010.
    doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2009.0186
  • G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "Genetic algorithm (GA)-enhanced almost difference set (ADS)-based approach for array thinning," IET Microwave Antennas Propag., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 305-315, Feb. 21 2011.
    doi:10.1049/iet-map.2010.0114
  • P. Rocca, "Large Array Thinning by Means of Deterministic Binary Sequences," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 334-337, 2011.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2011.2142290
  • G. Oliveri, F. Caramanica, and A. Massa, "Hybrid ADS-Based Techniques for Radio Astronomy Array Design," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 1817-1827, Jun. 2011.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2122228
  • M. Carlin, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "On the Robustness to Element Failures of Linear ADS-Thinned Arrays, " IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 4849-4853, Dec. 2011.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2165510
  • D. Sartori, G. Oliveri, L. Manica, and A. Massa, "Hybrid Design of Non-Regular Linear Arrays With Accurate Control of the Pattern Sidelobes," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 6237-6242, Dec. 2013.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2283602
   

 

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